Scientific discoveries and inventions have transformed our lives, enabling us to answer previously unanswerable questions. Below is a list of famous physicists and their notable contributions.

**Albert Einstein**

**Invention:** Photon (light quantum)

**Contribution:** Developed the General and Special theory of relativity and the concept of mass-energy equivalence (E = mc^2).

**J.J. Thomson**

**Invention:** Electron

**Contribution:** Discovered the first subatomic particle, the electron, and found evidence for the existence of isotopes.

**Ernest Rutherford**

**Invention:** Proton

**Contribution:** Proposed the nuclear structure of the atom and hypothesized the existence of the neutron.

**John Dalton**

**Invention:** Atomic Theory

**Contribution:** Proposed that atoms are indivisible particles that combine in fixed ratios to form compounds.

**James Chadwick**

**Invention:** Neutron

**Contribution:** Discovered the neutron, which was crucial for the development of nuclear fission and atomic bombs.

**Isaac Newton**

**Inventions:** Laws of Motion, Calculus, Gravitational Theory

**Contribution:** Laid the foundation for classical mechanics and developed a mathematical framework for the physical world.

**Charles-Augustin de Coulomb**

**Invention:** Coulomb’s Law

**Contribution:** Formulated the law of electrostatic attraction and repulsion.

**Georg Simon Ohm**

**Invention:** Ohmâ€™s Law

**Contribution:** Stated that the current through a conductor is directly proportional to the voltage and inversely proportional to the resistance.

**Michael Faraday**

**Inventions:** Electromagnetic Induction, Benzene

**Contribution:** Discovered electromagnetic induction and established the laws of electrolysis.

**Thomas Edison**

**Inventions:** Incandescent Light, Motion Picture Camera, Fluorescent Lamp

**Contribution:** Made significant contributions to electric power generation and mass communication.

**Henri Becquerel**

**Invention:** Radioactivity

**Contribution:** Discovered natural radioactivity, earning a Nobel Prize.

**Marie Sklodowska-Curie**

**Inventions:** Polonium, Radium

**Contribution:** Conducted pioneering research on radioactivity, becoming the first woman to win a Nobel Prize.

**Max Planck**

**Invention:** Quantum Theory

**Contribution:** Proposed the quantum theory of energy, significantly impacting the study of atomic and subatomic processes.

**Heinrich Rudolf Hertz**

**Invention:** Photoelectric Effect

**Contribution:** Discovered the photoelectric effect, which led to the development of quantum mechanics.

**Wilhelm Conrad RÃ¶ntgen**

**Invention:** X-rays

**Contribution:** Produced and detected X-rays, earning a Nobel Prize.

**Neils Bohr & Ernest Rutherford**

**Invention:** Atomic Structure

**Contribution:** Bohr improved Rutherfordâ€™s model by proposing quantized electron orbits.

**Enrico Fermi**

**Invention:** Nuclear Reactor

**Contribution:** Built the worldâ€™s first nuclear reactor and contributed to the development of quantum theory and statistical mechanics.

**Summary Table**

Year | Discovery | Scientist Name |

1905 | Photon | Albert Einstein |

1897 | Electron | J.J. Thomson |

1919 | Proton | Ernest Rutherford |

1808 | Atom | John Dalton |

1932 | Neutron | James Chadwick |

1687 | Law of Motion | Isaac Newton |

1779 | Coulombâ€™s Law | Charles-Augustin de Coulomb |

1827 | Ohmâ€™s Law | Georg Simon Ohm |

1831 | Electromagnetic Induction | Michael Faraday |

1880 | Thermionic Emission | Thomas Edison |

1896 | Radioactivity | Henri Becquerel |

1898 | Radium | Marie Sklodowska-Curie |

1900 | Quantum Theory | Max Planck |

1905 | Photoelectric Effect | Heinrich Rudolf Hertz |

1895 | X-rays | Wilhelm Conrad RÃ¶ntgen |

1905 | Theory of Relativity | Albert Einstein |

1913 | Atomic Structure | Neils Bohr & Rutherford |

1942 | Nuclear Reactor | Enrico Fermi |

**FAQs**

Ohmâ€™s Law states that the current through a conductor is directly proportional to the voltage and inversely proportional to the resistance.

Henri Becquerel discovered radioactivity in 1896.

Max Planck proposed the quantum theory of energy, which significantly advanced the understanding of atomic and subatomic processes.

Ernest Rutherford is known as the father of nuclear physics.

Albert Einstein developed the General and Special theory of relativity and introduced the concept of mass-energy equivalence (E = mc^2).

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