These carbon and its compounds class 10 notes are meant to educate students of class 10 and aid them in qualifying for their exams. The term “carbon compounds” refers to chemical substances that contain carbon. In comparison to all other chemical elements, excluding hydrogen, carbon has the most compounds. In comparison to inorganic carbon molecules, organic carbon compounds are much more prevalent. Bonds between carbon atoms and other elements are often covalent bonds.
Why Are Carbon Compounds Crucial?
Our world is dependent on carbon. Everything around us is most likely made of carbon-based compounds. Everything is either a compound of carbon or its substituent, including foods, fuels, textiles, and medications. So let’s investigate some significant carbon compounds.
Bonding in Carbon: The Covalent Bond
Covalent bonds, electron dot structures, physical characteristics of organic compounds, and carbon allotropes are examples of bonding in carbon.
Covalent Bond: With an atomic number of 6, Carbon has a 2, 4 electronic configuration. Four electrons are needed to achieve the inert gas electrical arrangement. However, carbon cannot create an ionic bond. It may pick up four electrons, creating a C4- cation. However, the six-proton nucleus would find it challenging to retain 10 electrons. It could shed four of its electrons, creating C4 cations. But to remove four electrons, a lot of energy is needed.
By sharing its valence electrons with other carbon atoms or atoms of other elements, carbon can get a way around this issue. Covalent bonds are created when two atoms in a molecule share electron pairs.
There are three types of Covalent Bonds
- Single bond: When two electrons—one from each participating atom—are shared by two participating atoms, a single bond is created. A single line connecting the two atoms represents a single bond.
- Double bond: When two atoms share four electrons or one pair of electrons from each participating atom, a double bond is created between them. Double lines are used to represent it between the two atoms.
- Triple bond: When two atoms share six electrons, a triple bond is created between them. Triple lines between the two atoms are used to represent it.
Why Do Carbon Compounds Exist?
Compounds with molecules containing one atom of carbon are known as “carbon compounds.” In these chemical compounds, an atom of carbon is bonded with an atom of another element. Most of these substances have an organic character. However, many students mistakenly believe that just because a molecule has carbon, it always indicates that its origins are organic. That’s not true. Numerous inorganic carbon compounds exist as well, like carbon dioxide (CO2).
There are currently two major categories of carbon compounds:
Saturated Carbon Compounds
Compounds of carbon that can satisfy one another with a single bond are said to be saturated. Ethane, which is C2H6, is an instance of this. Here, only one bond completely completes the duplet or octet of both atoms.
Unsaturated Carbon Compounds
Some carbon compounds have double or triple bonds between the carbon atoms, like ethene, which are known as unsaturated carbon compounds and are more reactive than saturated carbon compounds.
Organic Substances Chapter 4 Science Class 10 Notes
This category of carbon compounds is the biggest. Hydrogen and carbon are necessary building blocks for organic compounds. Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids are the four main types of organic substances that are found in all living things.
Organic Carbon Substances
The existence of a carbon atom does not automatically qualify a compound as an organic substance. Although they are less frequent than organic compounds, inorganic carbon compounds do exist. Most inorganic compounds are found in minerals and other naturally occurring sources. A few examples are carbon disulfide (CS2), hydrogen cyanide (HCN), and the two most visible ones, carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide. Several of these inorganic carbon substances include
- Carbides: Binary compounds made up of carbon atoms and an element whose electronegativity is less than that of carbon. Titanium carbide is one instance.
- Carbonates: A carbonate is a carbonic acid salt. One of the most prevalent instances of carbonates is Calcium carbonate (CaCO3).
Allotropes of Carbon class 10 Chem Ch 4 Notes
Allotropes are different ways that the same element can appear physically. The physical and chemical characteristics of the element are determined by the various bonds that exist between its atoms. Diamond and graphite are both allotropes of the carbon atom, much like coal.
To melt pure metals, coke is employed as a fuel and a reducing agent. As a result, carbon is a common constituent in alloys. One such example of how iron and carbon are alloyed is carbon steel.
Nomenclature of Compounds of Carbon Class 10 Chapter 4 Notes
Some standards for naming carbon compounds have been set by the IUPAC or International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry. This was done in order to maintain order throughout the planet. These names are generally known as IUPAC names in common usage. Here are the methods to name carbon compounds:
(i) Determine how many carbon atoms are present in the chemical. Propane is the name given to a chemical with three carbon atoms.
(ii) If a functional group is present, it is denoted by a prefix or a suffix in the compound’s name.
(iii) The name of the carbon chain is amended by removing the last “e” and adding the proper suffix if the name of the functional group is to be presented as a suffix and the suffix of the functional group begins with a vowel (a, e, I o, or u). For instance, the name of a three-carbon chain with a ketone group would be Propane – “e” = Propan + “one” = Propanone.
(iv) If the carbon chain is unsaturated, then the final ‘ane’ in the name of the carbon chain is substituted by ‘ene’ or ‘yne.’
The same functional group confers nearly identical chemical characteristics to all members of a given family. With a rise in molecular mass, their physical characteristics, such as melting point, boiling temperature, density, etc., exhibit a regular gradient.
A substance’s capacity to experience a certain chemical change is described by its chemical property. To find a chemical property, we search for a chemical shift. Every time when there is a chemical transition, one or more new types of matter are created that are unique from the earlier types.
The Three Primary Allotropes of Carbon
Diamond: In a diamond, a carbon atom is joined by four other carbon atoms to form three-dimensional structures. It is an insulator and the hardest substance. It is employed for cutting and drilling rock. Jewellery can also be made with diamonds.
Graphite: Each carbon atom in graphite is linked to three more carbon atoms through covalent bonds. It is utilised as a lubricant and a good conductor of electricity.
Buckminster Fullerene is an allotrope of spherical molecules made up of a cluster of 60 carbon atoms containing carbon. It is solid at room temperature and dark.
Reactions of Combustion
When carbon or carbon-containing materials are burned in the presence of air or oxygen, carbon dioxide, heat, and light are produced.
For instance, naphthalene also burns when there is oxygen present, producing water and carbon dioxide gas.
The reactions of combustion, addition, and oxidation are all possible for carbon compounds.
Oxidation of Carbon-Based Substances
An oxidation reaction is one in which an oxygen atom is added, or a hydrogen atom is removed. However, not all oxidation processes entail the addition of oxygen or the elimination of hydrogen atoms.
Oxidising agents are chemicals with the ability to remove hydrogen from or introduce oxygen to other compounds. Potassium permanganate and acidified potassium dichromate are potent oxidisers.
Carbon Compounds Undergo Addition Reaction
An unsaturated hydrocarbon reacts with hydrogen to produce a single product in addition reactions. In the presence of catalysts such as palladium or nickel, addition reactions take place. Using a nickel catalyst, this reaction is frequently used to hydrogenate vegetable oils.
Carbon Compounds undergo Substitution Reaction
Ethene and Hydrogen combine to generate ethane. Being inert in most reagents, saturated hydrocarbons are unreactive and only react in the presence of sunlight when chlorine is added to them. When this reaction happens, hydrogen atoms get replaced by Chlorine one by one. This reaction is termed a substitution reaction because one type of atom or a group of atoms takes the place of another.
Soaps and Detergents
Long-chain carboxylic acid salts in the form of sodium or potassium are what makeup soap molecules. While the carbon chain of soap interacts with oil, the ionic end does not. Thus, the soap molecules organise into micelle-like structures, with one end of the molecules towards the oil droplet and the other end facing outward. In water, this creates an emulsion. Thus, the soap micelle aids in removing dirt from water, allowing us to wash our garments thoroughly.
The most common types of detergents are sodium salts of sulphonic acids, ammonium salts containing chloride or bromide ions, etc. Long hydrocarbon chains are present in both. When combined with the calcium and magnesium ions in hard water, the charged ends of these compounds do not produce insoluble precipitates. They are, therefore, still functional in harsh water. Typically, detergents are used to create shampoos and other cleaning solutions for clothing.
Carbon is a highly fascinating element overall. It is the ideal element to research, look for, utilise in alloys, and wear in jewellery because it is extremely abundant but not in pure form, occurs in star cores, and is important to live. Carbon occupies a particular place in our hearts and is employed in so many different things and locations that it is mind-boggling. We hope that our class 10 chemistry chapter 4 notes helped you brush up on your basics.