Acids, Bases, and Salts Class 10 Notes
Introduction to Acids, Bases, and Salts Chapter 2 Class 10 Notes
These chapter 2 science class 10 notes are framed per the CBSE science textbook. Students will be able to read and understand various concepts of chemistry via these notes.An acid is a substance that releases hydrogen ions when dissolved in water. An acid is a strong alkali that dissociates into hydrogen ions (protons) and hydroxide ions (OH-). Hydrogen ions are negatively charged, while OH- is positively charged. The presence of an acid in a solution causes the hydronium ion concentration to increase because there are more H+ ions present than OH-. This results in an overall decrease in pH and an increase in hydrogen ion concentration.A base is a substance that accepts hydrogen ions when dissolved in water. A base is a weak alkali that does not dissociate into hydronium ions and OH-. The presence of a base in a solution causes the hydroxide ion concentration to decrease because there are fewer OH- ions present than H+. This results in an overall increase in pH and a decrease in hydrogen ion concentration.
Understanding the Chemical Properties of Acids and Bases
Acids are substances that react with metal ions to form ionic compounds.
Acids react with metal ions to form metal salts. Some acids also react with other types of molecules. Acids can be organic (such as citric or lactic acid) or inorganic (such as hydrochloric or hydrofluoric acid).
A base is a substance that reacts with an acid to produce salt and water. Bases react with acids to form neutral compounds, which include salts and water. Some bases also react with other types of molecules. The most common bases are sodium hydroxide (also known as caustic soda), ammonia, and baking soda. Bases can be organic (such as sodium carbonate) or inorganic (such as sodium chloride).
An acid is a substance that can donate a proton when it reacts with another compound. An acid has a low pH value of less than 7. A base is a substance that can accept a proton when it reacts with another compound. A base has a high pH value of greater than 7. Salts are formed when an acid reacts with a base.
How Do Acids and Bases React with Metals?
Acids and bases react with metals because they both contain hydrogen. Hydrogen is a very reactive element; when it comes into contact with a metal, it will attack it and eat away at it. This is called electrolysis, and it’s how we make hydrogen gas from metals like iron and aluminium. Other acids, such as hydrochloric acid, can eat away metals. This is because in addition to eating away at the metal, it can also release protons, which are positively charged ions that can enter the metal and cause more damage.
In general, acids tend to be much more aggressive than bases, but there are some notable exceptions to this rule. When acids react with metals, they form salts. Salts are typically much less corrosive than the metal itself, but they still contain some elements present in the acid before reacting with the metal. Bases, on the other hand, don’t usually form salts when they react with metals. Instead, they just leave behind a small amount of salt that may have come from the acid or may even have formed during the electrolysis of the metal.
How Do Metal Carbonates and Metal Hydrogen carbonates React with Acids?
Metal carbonates and metal hydrogen carbonates are strong acid-soluble salts which can dissolve in strong acids and are prone to react with them. When metal carbonate or metal hydrogen carbonate is added to an acidic solution, it will dissociate into the ions that make up the salt, forming a weak base. The base is more soluble than the salt, so it will dissolve into the solution. This results in the formation of a stronger base. When the base is more soluble in an acidic solution, it will react with any acids present in the solution and form new compounds. Metal carbonates are also prone to decomposing when exposed to high temperatures.
During acid-base reactions, when a metal carbonate or metal hydrogen carbonate reacts with an acid, they will either hydrolyse (break down) or ionise (change into ions). Hydrolysis breaks down the metal carbonate into its constituent ions: bicarbonate (HCO3-) and carbon dioxide (CO2). Ionisation changes the metal carbonate into dissolved metal ions. When a metal carbonate reacts with an acid, more molecules are formed than are lost by hydrolysis or ionisation. This is because some of the molecules created in hydrolysis are lost by dissolving back into the water.
What Do Acids and Bases Have in Common?
All acids and all bases are similar in that they both have a positive charge. They also both can donate or accept electrons. In addition, all acids and all bases are capable of forming salts with other molecules. However, not all acids and not all bases are the same. Some acids can form more complex salts than others. For example, HCl is more acidic than NaOH. Other acids can be made from more complex molecules. For example, H2CO3 is made from CO2 and HO2. In addition, some bases can form more complex salts than others. For example, Na2CO3 is more basic than NaOH.
Another way to think about acids and bases is to imagine them as “pairs of opposites” – one strongly acidic, the other strongly basic.
An Acid or a Base in Water: Acid, Base and Salt Class 10 Notes
An acid is a substance that releases hydrogen ions (H ) when dissolved in water. Conversely, a base is a substance that accepts hydrogen ions when dissolved in water.
The pH scale measures the concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution. The pH scale ranges from 0 to 14, with seven being neutral. The acidic properties of acids are characterised by a low pH (lower than 7) and a high concentration of hydrogen ions. Conversely, the basic properties of bases are characterised by a high pH (higher than 7) and a low concentration of hydrogen ions.
When an acid is added to neutral or slightly alkaline water, its hydrogen ion concentration increases, causing the pH value to decrease and the concentration of hydronium (H ) ions to rise. Similarly, when a base is added to neutral or slightly acidic water, its hydrogen ion concentration decreases, resulting in increased hydronium ion concentration and an increase in the pH value. These changes in pH value and concentration result from the transfer of hydrogen ions between water molecules and hydronium ions.
How Strong Are Acid and Base Solutions?
The strength of a solution is represented by its pH scale. The lower the number, the stronger the solution. For example, a solution with a pH of 0 is very strong. A solution with a pH of 1 is neutral. A solution with a pH of 2 is weak. A solution with a pH of 3 is weakly acidic. A solution with a pH of 4 is weakly basic. A solution with a pH of 5 is neutral. A solution with a pH of 6 is mildly acidic. A solution with a pH of 7 is mildly basic. The strongest solutions are those with a pH above 7.
A strong acid will completely dissolve an alkali and vice versa. An acid and base can be mixed to create neutralisation or an intermediate in the process called saponification, where an acid reacts with another acid to form soap or glycerin.
A strong base will completely dissolve an acid and vice versa. Strong acids will react very strongly and violently when mixed with bases which could cause an explosion in extreme cases and an exothermic reaction that produces heat when reacting with water (see exothermic reactions).
Strong acids are also corrosive to metals like gold, silver and aluminium as well as glass and other materials as they can eat through it at room temperature depending on how strong it is and how concentrated it is in comparison to its surroundings.
More About Salts: pH of Salts
Salts are a group of chemicals that are found in nearly every living thing. They are made up of many different elements, such as sodium, chlorine, potassium, and magnesium. Different types of salts vary in their chemical composition, but all of them have a pH level that is less than 7.0. Salts are found in the soil and water supply and can be beneficial to plants by allowing them to absorb nutrients from the soil or by helping to regulate the pH level of the soil and water.
Salts can also be used on humans to help maintain proper hydration levels. Salt plays an important role in regulating blood pressure, controlling body temperature and maintaining a healthy electrolyte balance. It is recommended that adults consume no more than 2,300 mg of sodium per day.
However, too much salt can lead to high blood pressure, stomach bloating, and even problems for children who may not be able to regulate their body’s fluid levels properly.
Chemicals From Common Salt
The majority of food in India is produced using salt, which is a popular seasoning. Although some people use it to flavour their food, others use it as a preservative.
If you eat lots of salty foods such as potato chips and pretzels, then you are probably eating more salt than you realise. According to the World Health Organization, nearly half of the world’s population consumes more than the recommended amount of salt each day.
Salt is made up of two main ingredients: sodium chloride and water. Some salts have additional elements that can affect your health, including iodine and sulfur. To avoid consuming too much salt, try replacing regular table salt with sea salt or rock salt. Rock salt has a higher concentration of minerals, including potassium, calcium and magnesium, that may benefit your health.
This article discusses the concept of bases and acids, their properties, examples, and their uses with special reference to class 10 chemistry NCERT textbooks for students and teachers alike. Bases are substances that, when dissolved in water, liberate OH- ions. Acids are substances that, when dissolved in water, liberate H+ ions. Neutralisation is a process where acid and base react together to form water and salt. In neutralisation, a base and an acid react together to form salt and water.